This research report was prepared for the ‘action dialogue’ on ASM in Tanzania, held in Geita from 7 to 10 November 2017, in order to provide participants with a common understanding of the sector. IIED runs a global ASM dialogue programme designed to help national stakeholders to identify solutions to promote a responsible, inclusive and productive ASM sector that can contribute to sustainable development. It provides a much-needed forum for multi-stakeholder collaboration and knowledge sharing to promote better governance, greater voice, and secure and productive employment across the mining sector and in complementary rural livelihoods—such as agriculture. The programme strives to make sure that all stakeholders participate, that the process is locally owned, and that discussions focus on solutions. This way, the IIED dialogues can help align ASM with national priorities and sustainable development agendas. IIED’s dialogue approach has already been used in Ghana and Madagascar.